From January 1788, when the First Fleet of convicts arrived at Botany Bay, to the end of convict transportation 80 years later, over 160,000 convicts were transported to Australia.
Although convicts were transported to the colonies of New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia, many convicts ended up in other states or colonies, having been taken there by their assigned masters or by moving there after gaining their freedom. Distant settlements such as Moreton Bay and Norfolk Island were also used as places of secondary punishment.
How do I know if my ancestor was a convict?
You will need to trace your family history back to your family's arrival in Australia to discover whether you have convict ancestry.
Pointers to a person being a convict may include:
- the words 'with the permission of the Governor' on a marriage certificate
- the name of your ancestor in a convict muster
- the name of a ship and year after the person’s name, in a document
- noted as a convict in a census or other official document, such as Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence.
What do I need to start convict research?
A good starting point for convict research is the record of the convict's arrival in Australia. It is best to have an idea of:
the convict’s arrival date; and
the colony to which he/she was transported.
Each of the three colonies which received convicts have separate records. Information found on the arrival record will enable you to research the convict's crime, trial and sentence and to follow their term of sentence in Australia.